Sir Isaac Newton born 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726 was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a “natural philosopher”) who is widely recognised as one of the scientific revolution.His book philosophy Naturalis principia mathematica (“Mathematical principles of natural philosophy”),first published in 1687,laid the foundations for classical mechanics.Newton made seminal contributions to optics,and he shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the devel-opment of calculus.

Newton principia formulated the laws ofmotion and universal gravitation,which dominated scientist’s view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.By deriving kepler’s laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity,and then using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets ,the tides,the precession of the equinoxes ,and other phenomena Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the solar system.This work also demonstrated that the motion of objects on earth and of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles.His prediction that earth should be dshaped as an in oblate spheroid was later vindicated by the measurements of maupertuis , La condamine ,and others,which helped convince most continental European scintists of the superiority is Newtonian mechanics over the earlier system of Descartes.Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colur based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light in to the many colours of the visible spectrm.He formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound,and introduced the nation of a Newtonian fulid.In addition to his work on calculas,as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series,generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents developed a method for approximating the roots of a function,and classified most of the civic plane curves.

Newton was a fellow of Trimty college and the second Luvasing professor of Mathematics at the university of Cambridge.He was a devout but unorthodox Christian and,unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day,he refused to take holy orders in the church of England,perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinty.Beyond his work on the mathematical scinces,Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of bibical chronology and alchemy,but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death.In his later life,Newton became prensident of the Royal Socity.Newton served the British government as Warden and Master of the Royal mint.